Persian Gum (Zedo)
Gum, Persian Gum, Gum Zoodoo, Sarmak Shirazi, Sale of Süm Zoodoo, zedo gum, persian gum Persian Gum, Gum Gum from Amygdalus scoparia. This gum, also known as “gum zhdo” and “gum shiraz”, is found in white, yellow, and red colors and is graded accordingly. Persian gum, like other gums, produces sticky solutions and viscose when dissolved in water. It has pharmaceutical, food and industrial applications, for example, as an ointment for swollen joints, anti-parasitic agents, dental pain, appetite, cough agent, hair straightening and skin glaze in traditional medicine. In pharmacy, this gum is also used as an emulsifying and suspending agent, along with gum arabic.
Persian Gum is a non-starch hydrocolloid having an acid polysaccharide content, the major part of which consists of a sugar candy unit of galactose with a smaller amount of arginine (approximately 1: 2).
Persian gum is naturally composed of two parts of the solution (about 30%), and insoluble (about 70%). The soluble part is easily dissolved in cold water, while its insoluble part is relatively soluble in hot water. According to the study, Persian Gum Dye consists of about 95-94% polysaccharides and about 5 to 5% of impurities of fat, protein, phenolic (tannins) and minerals, which, of course, Alcohol can be removed. The physicochemical properties of Persian gum is considerably different from Arabic gum, for example, in spite of Arabic gum, this gum produces sticky and viscous solutions at lower concentrations. The consistency of this gum is also higher than kitty.
On average, one gram of Persian gum can absorb about 12 grams of water. This gum does not form a gel in the range of 1 to 8 percent. However, at concentrations higher than 12-11%, it can create a real gel network.
The distribution of Persian gum in water increases significantly with increasing temperature. For example, it has been shown that only 30% of total gum is soluble at 30 ° C, but increasing the temperature to 90 ° C leads to more solubility of up to 60% of the total gum. The viscosity of the Persian Gum solution until the temperature of 60 ° C does not change substantially, but increasing the temperature to 90 ° C reduces its viscosity. In terms of rheological, dispersion of the Persian Gum solution in water, shows a slip-like behavior. Addition of salts or acidic conditions also reduces the apparent viscosity of Persian gum. Dispersion 1% Persian gum in water is acidic (pH 4.3-4.62) and there is a photographic relationship between the pH of the solution and the color of Persian gum, so that the color of the gum is brighter, the pH of the gum solution is higher. The tannins are responsible for the color of Persian gum, and so the gum color is brighter and whiter, its tannin content is less. Tannin content is a limiting parameter in the use of Persian gum for food and pharmaceutical use.
Persian Gum has a technological importance in food products in addition to its pharmaceutical and health applications. The effective use of this gum in the production of edible and coated films can be mentioned. In this regard, the extraction of the mixture prepared from the solution in Persian gum, glycerol and calcium chloride salt yields an oral film that has high flexibility, high transparency and high tensile strength.
Due to the good properties of stability, Persian gum can be replaced with 75% of carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) in mayonnaise, without any change in overall acceptance and sensory properties of mayonnaise. Effective application of this gum in improving the rheological properties of Taftoon bread pastry, as well as stabilizing the system of sour syrup against corrosivity, improving tissue properties, improving viscosity and reducing the synergistic in low-fat probiotic yogurt, and its relative replacement with gelatin (insoluble part in Persian gum) Proven in Pastil’s product.
Persian gum is used because of the adhesion properties of pouring, dyeing, textiles (for example, for fabric sanding) or insulating the level of lagoons and boats to prevent moisture penetration.
Due to the high adhesion properties of Persian gum and its suitable price, the use of this gum is increasing in the formulation of plant manure as well as in the production of animal feed.